Punishment of Abetment of the Type of "imsak" in Shiite Jurisprudence and Criminal Law of Iran

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Teacher

2 Massachusetts (in official postal use)

10.22034/ijrj.2020.671700

Abstract

One of the special instances of abetment in crime against individuals is "imsak" or holding a person to enable a third party to kill him; of course it is not only the crime of killing in which "imsak" is regarded as abetment in a crime, but it can also be found in such crimes as kidnapping, theft, assault and battery, unlawful imprisonment and arrest. Although the punishment of  abetment in crime is in general included in Articles 127 and 128 of the Islamic Punishment Law, "imsak" in murder cannot be an instance of these two articles, because the beginning part of Article 127 states that the punishment under this article includes the crimes for which no penalty has been determined in Sharia and law, while in Sharia the punishment of the abetment in murder has been determined and Shiite jurists have regarded "life imprisonment" as the punishment for the abetment in murder. Logically speaking, too, a striking difference in punishment applicable to different examples of abetment is not justifiable; therefore a unique precedent must be practiced. This research is a fundamental study with an analytical-descriptive methodology. The main question is what strategy would be suggested for carrying out a punishment in abetment-related crimes, especially abetment in murder. This research, upon a review of the viewpoints of jurists and lawyers about the nature of "imsak", has come to the conclusion that the crime of "imsak" is of the type of crimes related to private rights and is therefore forgivable and negligible. Moreover, the views of those who have  proposed special punishment for abetment in murder by the legislator have been more strongly justified. Therefore, in order to disambiguate the case in order to prevent the issuance of different verdicts for the similar offence and with regard to the necessity of the accord of all laws and regulations with Islamic principles, by virtue of the Fourth Principle of the Constitutional Law, the punishment of "life imprisonment" for the abetment in a deliberate murder is suggested to be included as a single article in the Islamic Punishment Law.

Keywords


Aghayinia, H. (2006). Private criminal law: Offense against the person. Tehran: Mizan.
Alam al-Hoda, M. (1415 AH). Al-Intisār fi Infirādāt al-Imāmia. Qom: Islamic Publications Office.
Ansari, G., et al. (2007). Ta’zirat (Discretionary Punishments). Qom: Research Center for Islamic Knowledge and Culture.
Audah, A. Q. (no date). Al-Tashri’ al-Jinayi al-Islami. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Arabi.
Bazgir, Y. (1997). Islamic penal code as reflected in the decisions of the supreme court of Iran (Murder). Tehran: Qoqnus.
Bojnordi, H. (1419 AH). Al-Qavaid al-Fiqhiya. Qom: al-Hadi Publishing.
Ebrahimpour Layalestani, H. (2009). Accessoryship to Murder. Qom: Homaye Qadir.
Fayumi, A. M. (no date). Al-Misbāh al-Munīr fi Qarīb al-Sharh al-Kabīr l-ir Rafi’i. Qom: Manshurat Dar al-Razi.
Fazel Lankarani, M. (1998). Jami’ al-Masail. Qom: Amir Kabir Press Institute.
Golduzian, I. (2007). Annotations to Islamic penal code. Tehran: University of Tehran Press.
Gudarzi, F. (no date). Forensic medicine. Tehran: Einstein.
Habibzadeh, M. J., & Rahiminejad, M. E. (2005). Offense of kidnapping in Iranian Law. Journal of Legal Procedure, 43, 10-14.
Holy Quran.
Hosseini Yamin, M. (2011). Criminalization and penalty-setting of "holding for murdering" act using the "assisting a guilt is forbidden" rule (al-hormah al-eanah li al-zolm) and crime assistance theory. Dissertation for obtaining master’s degree. Department of Islamic Law and Teachings, Imam Sadiq University.
Ibn Babawayh, M. A. (1413 AH). Man La Yahduruhu al-Faqih. Qom: Islamic Publications Office.
Ibn Faris, A. (1413 AH). Mujam Maqāyis al-Luga (A. Mohammad Harun, Ed.). Qom: Maktab al-Alam al-Islami.
Ibn Manzur, M. M. (1408 AH). Lisan al-Arab. Beirut: Dar al-Turath al-Arabi.
IRR Judiciary Research Center. (2002-2003). A Collection of jurisprudencial and judicial decisions on criminal matters. Tehran: Qaza Publishing.
Johari, E. H. (1410 AH). Al-Sihah: Taj al-Luqa wa Sihah al-Arabiya. Beirut: Dar al-Ilm l-il Malayin.
Karimi, H. (1986). Judicial standards in Imam Khomeini’s view. Qom: Shakuri.
Khalisi M. B. (1413 AH). Ahkām al-Mahbusīn fi-l Fiqh al-Jafarī. Qom: Islamic Publications Office.
Khamenei, S. A. (2006). Lecture notes on advanced topics in qisas. Tehran: no publication.
Kulayni, M. Y. (1407 AH). Al-Kāfī. Tehran: Dar al-Kutub al-Islamia.
Makarem Shirazi, N. (1427 AH). New responses to requests of fitwa. Qom: Imam Ali School.
Mansur, J. (1996). Islamic penal code. Tehran: Didar.
Mansur, J. (2013). Islamic penal code. Tehran: Didar.
Mansur, J. (2009). Criminal procedure: Laws and regulations. Tehran: Didar.
Marashi Shushtari, S. M. H. (1427 AH). Novel views on law. Tehran: Mizan.
Mirmohammad Sadeqi, H. (2008). Private criminal law: Offense against the person. Tehran: Mizan.
Moein, M. (1996). A dictionary of Persian language. Tehran: Amir Kabir.
Montazari, H. A. (1417 AH). Nizam al-Hukm fi-l Islam. Qom: Sarayi.
Montazari, H. A. (1409 AH). Dirāsāt fi Wilāyat al-Faqīh al-Duwal al-Islamia. Qom: Tafakkor.
Moradi, H. (1994). Accessoryship and assistance to crime. Tehran: Mizan.
Mostafavi, H. (1402 AH). Al-Tahqīq fi Kalamāt al-Quran al-Karīm. Tehran: Al-Taba’a wa-l Nashr.
Shahid al-Awwal, M. (no date). Al-Qawaid Va al-Fawaid. Qom: Mofid Bookstore.
Muhaqiq Helli, J. H. (1408 AH). Shara’i al-Islam fi Masail al-Halāl wa-l Harām (M. A. Baqal, Ed.). Qom: Ismailian Institute.
Muqniyeh, M. J. (1421 AH). Fiqh al-Imam al-Sadiq. Qom: Ansarian Institute.
Musavi Khomeini, S. R. (2002). Guardianship of jurist (Wilāyat Faqīh). Tehran: The Institute for Compilation and Publication of Imam Khomeini's Works.
 Musavi Khomeini, S. R. (1415 AH). Al-Makāsīb al-Muharama. Qom: The Institute for Compilation and Publication of Imam Khomeini's Works.
Najafi, M. H. (1404 AH). Jawāhir al-Kalām fi Sarh Sharai’al-Islam. Beirut: Dar al-Turath al-Arabi.
Nakhlah, M., Al-Balabaki, R., & Matar, S. (2002). Al-Qāmūs al-Qānūnī al-Thulāthī. Beirut: Manshurat al-Halabi al-Huquqia.
Nuri Hamadani, H. (2009). One thousand and one problems. Qom: Mahdi Moud Institute.
Qarashi, A. A. (no date). A lexicon of Quran. Qom: Dar al-Kutub al-Islamia.
Raqib Isfahani, H. M. (1412 AH). Al-Mufradat fi Gharib al-Quran (S. A. Dawudi, Ed.). Beirut: Dar al-Ilm al-Islamia.
Sabzevari, S. A. A. (1413 AH). Muhaddab al-Ahkām. Qom: Al-Manar Institute.
Sadeqi, M. H. (2000), Private criminal law (1): Offense against the person. Tehran: Mizan.
Sadeqi, M. H. (2001), Offense against the person. Tehran: Mizan.
Sepahvand, A. (2007). Offenses against persons. Tehran: Majd.
Shahid al-Thānī, Z.. (1413 AH). Maslak al-Afham ila Tanqih Sharai al-Islam. Qom: no publication.
Shambayati, H. (1992). Public criminal law. Tehran: Rudaki.
Shokri, R., & Sirus, Q. (2005). Islamic penal code in today’s legal order. Tehran: Mohajer.
Tabasi, N. D. (1995). Mawarid al-Sijn fi-Nusūs wa-l Fitwā. Qom: Maktab al-Alam al-Islami.
 Tamimi Maqribi, N. M. (2006). Da'a'im al-Islam. Qom: Ahl al-Bayt Institute.
 Tusi, M. H. (2008). Al-Mabsūt fi Fiqh al-Imamia (M. T. Kashfi, Ed.).  Tehran: al-Kutub al-Mortazaqia li-Ihya al-Athar al-Jafaria.
Tusi, M. H.  (1407 AH). Al-Khalāf. Qom: Islamic Publications Office.
Validi, M. S. (1994). Public criminal law. Tehran: Dad.
Zanjani. M. S. (1419 AH). A Book on marriage. Qom: Ray Pardaz Institute.
Zera’at, A. (2013). An overview of Islamic penal code. Tehran: Qoqnus.
Zubaidi, S. M. M. (1414 AH). Taj al-Arus Min Jawahir al-Qamus. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr li Taba’a wan-Nashr wat-tuzi’.