Diya for Women and the Legal Policy of Iran: From Commitment to the Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence (fiqh) to Human Rights Standards

Document Type : Original Article


1 Student

2 Teacher



The obligation to compensate for the damages incurred on individuals is regarded as one of the most important principles of Fiqh and Law, and the bodily harms to women are included among compensable bodily damages. In case of harm, a financial compensation known as Diya is paid to the injured person, while in the pre-revolutionary laws of Iran, no reference was made to such financial compensations for damage.  But with the victory of Islamic revolution and adopting of the Constitutional Law, an appropriate ground was developed for the judicial system of Iran to be adapted with Islamic legal principles as well as with the Shi'a Twelver doctrine. With the enactment of the Diyat Law, the amount of Diya for women was reduced to half the amount of Diya for men, in some cases. Due to the perception that exist about Islam enjoying a perfect legal system and assigning a fundamental role to women as well as the international adverse publicity of the ongoing law, the Legislature proceeded to resolve the problem of inequity of Diya for women and men re-codifying the Islamic Penal Code, enacted 2013, in order to disregard the gender for damage compensation and to observe the international norms. The legislators introduced the law that the government has to pay the balance of inequity of Diya for women.


  1. Amid, H. (2010). Amid comprehensive dictionary ( 1st ed.).  Tehran: Zarrin.

    Barikloo, A. (2008).Civil liability (2nd ed.).Tehran: Mizan.

    Behnesi, A. F. (1409). Al Jazazayah fe- al- Shar'a al-Islamiyah. Cairo: Dar al-Shuruk.

    Dehkhoda, A. A. (1993). Dehkhoda Dictionary ( 3rd ed.). Tehran:  Tehran University Press.

    Esfahani, H. M. R. (1412). Mofradat al-faz- al-Quran (1st  ed.). Beirut: Dar al-Alam.

    Feyz, A. (1998). Translation of Al-Dieh (2nd ed.). Tehran: Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance publications.

    Feyz, A. (2006). Islamic jurisprudence and principles ( 18th ed.). Tehran: University of Tehran.

    Feyz, A. (2008). Tradition and Ijtehad ( 1st ed.). Tehran:  Majd Publication.

    Gorgi, A. (2006). Legal Articles ( 4th ed.). Tehran:  Tehran University Press.

    Hor Ameli, M. H. (1409). Wesh al-Shi'a (1st ed.). Qom:  Al-Alibit Institute.

    Hosseininejad, H.  (1991). Civil liability.Tehran: Jahad Daneshgahi.

    Ibn Manzour, M.M. (1414). Lassan al-Arab (3rd ed.). Beirut: Dar Al-Turath Al-Arabi.

    Jafari Langroudi, M. J. (1368). Terminology of law (4th ed.). Tehran: Treasure of Knowledge.

    Javadi Amoli, A. (1999). Sharia in the mirror of knowledge ( 2nd ed.). Qom:  Asra publication.

    Khoi, S. A. Q. (1413). Tekmaltol- Manhaj al-Salaheen. Qom:  Medina al-Alam.

    Khomeini, S.R. (1409). Tahrir al-Wasila (1st ed.).Qom: Dar al-'Alm.

    Makarem Shirazi, N. (1995). Tafsire nemooneh (1st ed.).Tehran: Darolkotob.

    Najafi, M. H. (1404). Jawahar al-kalam: Description of Shira's al-Islam ( 7th ed.). Beirut: Dar Al'yat al-Arabi.

    Nayebzadeh, A. (2013).  Javahar Alkalam Diat translation (1st ed.). Tehran: Khorsandi.

    Salehi, F. (1999). Dieh or punishment (3rd ed.). Qom:  Islamic Propaganda Office.

    Sarakhsy, S. (no date) Almabsout. Beirut:  Daralmarrof.

    Shafiei Sarvestani, E., Rahman Setayesh, M. K., & Ghiasi, J. (1997). Diat Act and time requirements. Tehran: Presidential Strategic Research Center.

    Shahid Sani (al-Juba'i al-Ameli), Z. ().  Al-Rawza Al-Beyie.  (5th ed.).  Qom: Islamic Propaganda Office.

    Tabatabaei, M. H. (1417). Tafsir Al-Meysan( 1st ed.). Qom: The Society of Teachers.

    The Jurisprudence Research Center of the Judiciary. (1998). Jurisprudential views on the convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.  Tehran:

    Zeraat, A. (2002). Explanation of the Islamic Penal Code of the Diat Section (3rd ed.). Tehnran:  Phoenix.


    Related rules

    1. Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran
    2. Diyat Act of 1982
    3. The Islamic Penal Code 1991
    4. The General Penal Code 1925
    5. The Islamic Penal Code 2013
    6. Universal Declaration of Human Rights