Analysis of the Requirements of Progressive Principles of Human Rights in the Performance of Bailiffs with a Look at the Islamic Jurisprudential Principles

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Law Department, Qeshm Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran

3 Department of Law and Political Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran



Observing Human Rights is one of the main obligations of the institutions affiliated with the criminal justice system. In this system, bailiffs are representatives tasked with detection of a crime. These officers are required to observe the principles of Human Rights when detecting a crime. The principles of Human Rights which should be observed regarding the defendants at the stage of crime detection include: respecting the rights of the detainee, infrastructure optimization, the principle of respect for the dignity, honor and personality of individuals, the principle of respect for the freedom of individuals and the prohibition of arbitrary detention of defendants, and the principle of respect for privacy. In addition, respecting the rights of detainees include: observing the principle of the legitimacy of criminal interrogation, the right to have an attorney from the beginning of the proceedings, and consideration of the presumption of innocence at the stage of crime detection. In addition to Islamic jurisprudential principles and sources, some international treaties have been signed in this regard, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), which contains the doctrines outlined in Islam. In addition to incorporating these principles into the Constitution under Articles 22, 27, 37, 38, etc. The Iranian legislature has addressed this issue in ordinary laws, including both substantive and procedural law. The Code of Criminal Procedure incorporates these principles by making significant adjustments in their foundations and elements.


Amir Arjmand, A.  (2005). The role of ombudsman in protecting citizens' rights. Tehran: Tehran Publication.
Dashti, M.  (2005). Translation of Nahjulbalaghah. Qom: Darol Elm Publication.
Golpayegani, M. (1988). Majma Al-Masael. Qom:  Darol Quran Al-Karim.
Helli, M. (1967). Izah Al-Favaed fi Sharh Moshkelat Al-Qavaed. Qom: Esmaeilian Institute.
Helli, Y. (1984). Aljame'eh Le-Sharayeh, Seyed Al-Shohada. Qom: Al-Elmiyeh Institute.
Hur Ameli, M. (1956). Vasael Al-Shia. Tehran: Almaktab Al-Islamiyeh.
Isfahani, M.  (1986). Malaz Al-Akhyar fi Fahm Tahzib Al-Akhbar. Qom: Ayatullah Marashi Library Publication.
Isfahani, M. (1984). Merat al-Oghul fi Sharh Akhbar Al-e-Rasul, Tehran: Darul Kotob Islamiyeh.
 Koleini, M. (1986). Alkafi. Tehran: Darulketab Al-Islamiyeh.
Maghrebi, N. (1965). Da'aem Al-Islam. Qom:  Aal-Bayt Institute.
Mazaheri, A. (2006). The concept of intervention for advocates in preliminary investigations, Journal of Legal Justice, 70, 56 61.
Moradi, M. (2012). Principles of standardizing police officers' behavior and performance in the citizen-oriented legal system. Tehran: Mizan Publication.
Mousavi Golpayegani, M. (1991). Aldor Al-Manzud fi Ahkam Al-Hodud. Qom: Darol Quran Al-Karim.
 Rahiminezhad, I. (2008). Human honor in criminal law. Tehran: Mizan Publication.
Ramezan, A. (2012). Observing citizens' rights in military courts. Tehran: Mizan Publication.
Razavi, M & Khazaei, A. (2008). Citizens rights in the process of crime detection, Journal of Police Knowledge, 9, 4-5.
Saburi, M & Kadkhoda, F. (2006). NGOs and human rights. Mashhad: Sokhan Gostar Publication.
 Sabzevari, A. (1992). Mohazeb Al-Ahkam. Qom: Almenar Institute.
Saki, M. (2008). Guarantees for criminal procedure action against offences against human rights and humanitarian law, Judicial Law Quarterly, 5, 44-54.
Shahid Sadr, A. (2010). Dorus fi Elm Al-Osul. Qom: Darulelm.
Tousi, A. (1945). Tahzib Al-Ahkam. Tehran: Darulketab Al-Islamiyeh.
Tousi, A. (1967). Almabsut fi Fiqh Al-Imamiyeh (3rd ed.). Tehran: Almaktab Al-Mortazaviyeh Le-Ehyae Asar Al-Jafariyeh.
 Tousi, A. (1980). Alnahayah fi Al-Mojarrad Al-Fiqh va Al-Fatwa. Beirut:  Darulketab Al-Arabiah.
Tousi, A. (1986). Alkhelaf. Qom: Islamic Publication Office.
Varvaei, A. & Bahramipour, R. (2015). The requirements of the judicial bailiffs regarding the protection of citizens' rights in the Iranian criminal law system, Detective, 8, 32-40.