The Study of Juridical and Legal Value of the Witness of Relatives

Document Type : Original Article


1 Professor in Private Law, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Private Law, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran



In civil procedure code enacted in 1931, the legislator, was not accepted the witness of sanguinity or causal relationship of the third degree from the second floor. With approval of civil procedure code enacted in 2000, the legislator is silent about witness of relatives. Therefore, the question arises as to whether, despite the silence of the civil procedure code enacted in 2000, as well as relatives with one of the parties, prevented the acceptance of the witness or not. It seems, due to intentional silence of legislator in the new code of civil procedure, it shall be sentenced to a change of the legislator's idea and acceptance of the relatives' witness. However, the legislator in Article 154 of the criminal procedure code enacted in 1999 (Article 209 of the new code of criminal procedure), the judge shall be to question about the degree of sanguinity or causal relationship between witness and informed with the litigants. The sentence of criminal procedure code raises this question that if the witness of relatives in Iran's legal system is acceptable, what's the point of the question of the parties with respect to existence or nonexistence of the relationship. And if the lack of relationship, in the witness is required, why not raised under the terms of witness?


Ardebili, R. (1974). Witness in lawful and criminal affairs. Today's Law Journal, 29, 19-28.
Boroojerdi, H. (2008). Sources of Shiite jurisprudence (1st ed.). Tehran: Farhang Sabz Publication.
Esfahani, M. T. (1980). Jurisprudence. Tehran: Farahni Publication.
Hur Ameli, M. (1989). Vasaeol Shiah Ela Tahsil Masael Shariah (1st ed.).Qom: Aal Bayt Institute.
Ibn Baboyeh, M.A. (1983). Maani Akhbar (1st ed.). Qom: Islamic Publication Office.
Ibn Edris, M.M. (1990). Al-Saraer Al-Havi Le Tahrir Fatavi (2nd ed.). Qom: Islamic Publication Office.
Ibn Zohreh, H. (1997). Qoniyah Nozo Ela Elmi Osoul Val Forogh (1st ed.). Qom: Imam Sadiq Institute.
Izadifard, A. A., Ghanbarzadeh, M., Kaviar, H. (2010). Reiterating the slander positions in testimony. Journal of Private Law, 7(16), 113-156.
Jafari, M. J. (2008). Law terminology. Tehran: Ganj Danesh.
Khansari, A. Y. (1985). Jameah Madarek Fi Sharh Mokhtasar Nafe (2nd ed.). Qom: Esmaeilian Institute.
Khoei, A. Q. (2002). Mababi Taklamah Menhaj. Qom: Imam Khoei Institute.
Khorasani, A. Y. (1998). Sharh Tabsareh Motealemin (1st ed.). Qom: Qom Publication.
Madani, J. (2006). Claim of proof (9th ed.). Qom: Yasser Publication.
Makarem Shirazi, N. (2006). Esteftaat (2nd ed.). Qom: Imam Ali Publication.
Malouf, L. (2004). Al-Monjed (3rd ed.). Tehran: Saba Publication.
Mohajeri, A. (2008). Mabsout in civil jurisprudence (1st ed.). Tehran: Fekrsazan.
Mohaqeq Damad, M. (1986). Jurisprudence principles. Tehran: Islamic Science Publication.
Mousavi Khomeini, R. (1999). Tahrirol Vasilah (1st ed.). Qom: Darol Elm Institute.
Najafi, M. H. (1984). Javaherol Kalam Fi Sharh Sharaye Islam (7th ed.). Beirut: Dar Ehya Torath Arabi.
Pourahamdi, M. R. (2005). General principles of proof (1st ed.). Tabriz: Zarqalam Publication.
Safaei, H., Rahimi, H. (2004). The positive value of testimony in private law. Journal of Law and Politics, 13, 133-156.
Seyvari, M. (2005). Kanzol Erfan Fi Fiqh Quran (1st ed.). Qom: Mortazavi Publication.
Shahid Aval, M. A. (1997). Al-Lomeh Dameshqiyah Fi Fiqh Imamiyah. Beirut: Darol Torath.
Shahid Sani, Z. (1992). Al-Rozah Bahiya Fi Sharh Lomeh Dameshqiyah (1st ed.). Qom: Qom Publication.
Shams, A. (2008). Civil Procedure. Tehran: Darak Publication.
Sheikh Tousi, A.J.  (1987). Al-Khalaf (1st ed.). Qom: Qom Publication.
Tavakoli, S. (2006). The value of testimony and its validity in the Iranian legal system. Judicial Magazine, 56, 6-11.