Historical Study in Exclusions of Usury

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Jurisprudence & Islamic Principles of Law, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Jurisprudence & Islamic Principles of Law, Kharazmi University, Tehran

10.22034/ijrj.2018.541397

Abstract

Ban of usury is an Islamic rule which has explicitly been provided by holy Quran. In this matter there are some cases which are excluded from this ban. Opposite of jurists’ popular opinion, some jurists believe that deductions for these exclusions to unban usury are not sufficiently persuasive. Many studies have been made in this matter and many researchers, by criticizing to popular opinion such as unreliable and unreasonable basis of quoted texts by those jurists who follow this opinion, support unpopular opinion. This paper, by verifying of unpopular opinion and emphasis on findings of researches of its followers, seeks to improve these studies and criticizes the popular opinion’s bases by studying popular opinion’s historical background, new interpreting of documents and texts in the light of legal-jurisprudential framework and new point of view.  This paper has two main goals; the first, dependency of wife and children, in the past, in a family affected the ban of usury; and the second, the historical bases to unban of usury have been delaminated and today there is no justification for excluding some cases from ban of usury’s generality.

Keywords


1-    Akhond Khorasani, M. (1989). Kafiyat Al-Osul. Qom: Al -Bayt Publishing House.
2-    Alam al-Hoda, M. (1985). Rasael A-Sharif Al-Morteza, Dar Al-Quran Al-Karim Publishing House, Qom.
3-    Alamol Hoda, M. (1994). Al-Enthesar Fi-Inferadat Al-Imamyat. Qom:Islamic Publishing House
4-    Alamol Hoda, M. (1998). Al-Zariyah Ala Osul Al-Sharia. Tehran: Tehran University Press.
5-    Allameh Helli, H. (1984). Mabadiy Al-Vosul Ela Elm Al-Osul. Qom: Islamic Press.
6-    Allameh Helli, H. (1992). Mokhtalefo Al-Shi'a Fi Ahkam Al-Sharia. Qom: Islamic Publishing Press.
7-    Allameh Helli, H. (1993). Tazkerat Al-Fogha’ha. Qom: Aal Bayt Institute.
8-    Ansari, M. (1995). Faraed Al-Osul. Qom: Islamic Publication Office.
9-    Bahrani, Y. (1985). Al-Hadae'gh Al-Nazhrah fi Ahkame Etrato Al-Taherah. Qom: Islamic Publication Office.
10- Bojnourdi, H. (1998). The rules of jurisprudence. Qom: Al-Hadi Publications‎.
11- Feyz Kashani, M. (No date). Ma'fatih Al-Sharayeh. Qom: Ayatollah Marashi Najafi.
12- Hakim, M. (1990). Manhaj Al-Saleheen. Beirut: Islamic Publication.
13- Helli, M. (1984). Al-Tanqihor Al-Ra’eh Le Mukhtasar Al-Shara'eh. Qom: Ayatollah Marashi Publishing House.
14- Helli, M. (1987). Al-Mohadheb Al-Bareh fi Sharh Al-Mukhtasar Al-Nafeh. Qom: Islamic Bookstore.
15- Ibn Faris, A. (1984). Mo'jam Moghayes Al-Laghah. Qom: Islamic Propaganda Office.
16- Ibn Hamza, M. (1988). Al-Wisilah Ela Neyle Alfazile. Ayatollah Marashi Najafi Library.
17- Ibn Idriss, M. (1990). Al-Saraer Al-Havi Lahtiqir Al-Fatwi. Qom: Islamic Bookstore.
18- Ibn Muhammad, A. (1994). Lassan Al-Arab. Beirut: Dar A-Fakrar.
19- Ibn Zohreh, H. (1996). Encyclopedia of science and technology. Qom: Imam Sadiq (AS) Publication.
20- Isfahani, M. (1984). Murato Al-Aqul fi Sharh Akhbar Al-Rsullah. Tehran: Tehran Press.
21- Khomeini, R. (No date). Tahrir Al-Wasilah. Qom: Dar Al-Alam Publication.
22- Khoei, A. (1990). Manhaj Al-Saleheen, publishing house of Madinat al-Alam, Qom.
23- Khoei, A. (2001). Misbah Al-Osul. Tehran: Tehran Press.
24- Mirzaye Qomi, A. (2000). Qavanin Al-Osul. Tehran: Maktabeh Alamieh.
25- Moghadase Ardebili, A. (1983). Al-Faeda va Al-Burhan Fi sharhe Al-Adh’han. Qom: Islamic Publication Office.
26- Mohaghegh Helli, N. (1983). Ma’arej Al-Osul. Qom: Aal Bayt Institute.
27- Mohaghegh Sabzevari, M. (2002). Kefayat Al-Ahkam. Qom: Islamic Publication Office.
28- Mozafar, M. (2009). The Principles of jurisprudence. Qom: Islamic Publication Office.
29- Na'ini, M. (1974). Ajvad Al-Taghrirat. Qom: Erfan Publication.
30- Najashi, A. (1987). Rijal Al-Najashi. Qom: Islamic Bookstore.
31- Qomi, T. (No date). Thallath Rasael. Qom: Mohallati Publication.
32- Sadeghi Tehrani, M. (1992). Tabsarato Al-Fughaha Ala Tabsarato Al Mota'alamin. Qom:Islamic Culture Publishing House.
33- Shahid I, M. (1996). Al-Dorus Al-Shariyeh fi Fiqh Al-Imamyia. Qom: Islamic Publication Office.
34- Shahid, Z. (1993). Al-Ra'aye fi Alum Al-Darehayeh. Qom: Ayatollah Marashi Najafi Library.
35- Shahid, Z. (1993). Masaleko Al-Afham Ela Tanghihe Sharaeo Al-Islam. Qom:Islamic Studies.
36- Tabatabai, M. (1996). Al-Mizan Fi Tafsir Al-Quran. Qom: Islamic Publishing House.
37- Tousi, M. (1987). Al-Khalaf. Qom: Islamic Publication Office.
38- Tusi, M. (1996). Al-oddahte Fi Osul Al-Fiqah. Qom: Qom Press.
39- Yazdi, M. (1993). Takmelat Al-Arawato Al-Vousgha. Qom: Davari Bookstore.
40- Yazdi, M. (2000). Hashiato Al-Makaseb. Qom: Esmaeilian Institute.