Jurisprudential and Legal Review of Bioterrorism

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

Department of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran

10.22034/ijrj.2018.541396

Abstract

     Based on the spread of the phenomena of terror and terrorism in today's world, its changing form is simultaneous with the progress of science and technology, the utilization of biological agents in humans, animals, plants, medicines, foodstuffs, etc. and ultimately the annihilation of human beings in order to dominate the resources of other nations. It is to an extent that biological agents are used as biological or bio-terroristic weapons to destroy and weaken others. Therefore, after defining the bioterrorism, its jurisprudential and legal review, correspondence of this type of terror with the jurisprudential components and reviewing the jurisprudential verdict of defense against this phenomenon are among the objectives of this article. Content reporting is investigated as library and field research. The permission or lack of permission of using bioterrorism weapons is also investigated.

Keywords


  1. A group of authors. (2005). Human rights from the perspective of thinkers. Tehran: Enteshar Company.
  2. Abdul-Fayyaz Jahhouni, A. (1999). War and Peace Rights. Tehran: Tehran Publication.
  3. Ahmadvand , M. (2008). Security offenses. Publishing Center of Science.
  4. AJali Heli, A. (2011). Ketab A-Saraer. Tehran: Islamic Publication.
  5. Allameh Helli, H. (no date). Tazkerat Al-Fughaha. Beirut: Maktab Al-Razaviah.
  6. Ameli, H. (1989). Wasael al-Shi'a. Qom: Al Al-Bait Institute of Qom.
  7. Ameli, Z. a.-D. (1990). Al-Rouzah al-Bahiai fi Sharh al-lama al Dameshghiah. Qom: Davari.
  8. Ardabili, M. A. (2000). General penal code. Tehran: Mizan Publishing House.
  9. Attar, D. (1983). Tajavoz Al-Defae Al-Shari. Al-Islami Center.

10. Attar, D. (1999). Legitimate defense and infringing upon its limits.Tehran: Baz.

11. Bagheri, A. (1964). Legitimate defense. Tehran: Bahman Printing House.

12. Behzadnia, M., & Behzadnia, M. (2002). Bioterrorism, knowledge and means of combating it. National Congress of Military Medicine.

13. Chien-Shun , C., Wen-Bin , H., Hsiao-Lun, W., & Jiann-Hwa , C. (2001). Molecular epidemiology of a Shigella flexneri outbreak in a mountainous township in Taiwan. Republic of China, 39(3), 1048, 1056.

14. Cliford H, L., & Anthony S, f. (2008). Microbial bioterrorism In: Fauci, Braunwald, Kasper Harrison’s Internal Medicine. New York: Mc Graw Hill.

15. Cordesman, A. H. (2001). Asymmetric and terrorist attacks with biological weapons. Center for Strategic and International studies, 1-85.

16. Donald A, H. (1999). The Looming threat of bioterrorism,. Science 283, 1279, 1278-1282.

17. Doward, J., & Charlie-Pape, F. (Sunday 7 October 2007). UK Muslims warned: don't drink poisonous 'holy' water. Retrieved from https: // www. theguardian. com/ uk/ 2007/ oct/ 07/ religion.world

18. Fanayi, A. (2005). Religion in ethics scale. Tehran: Serat Cultural Institute.

19. Feyz, A. (1985). Concurrence and compliance in general penal code. Publications of the Ministry of Islamic Guidance.

20. Fīrhi, D. (2004). Legitimate defense, terror and operation of martyrdom in Shi'a religion. Shi'iology, 1(6), 109-126.

21. Francis, B. (2000). Biological and chemical terrorism: Strategic plan for preparedness and eesponse. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report, 4(49), 1-14.

22. Ghaedan, A., Sharifi Tarazkouhi, H., & Bagheri, S. (2014). Rules of war law in the thought of Shiite jurisprudents and comparing it with contemporary humanitarian law. Jurisprudence and Basics of Islamic Law, 1(2), 277-302.

23. Ghorbanian, N. (no date). Human rights and humanitarian rights. Tehran: Research Center of Culture and Thought.

24. Guidotti, T. (2000). Bioterrorism and the public health response. Am J Prev Med, 18(2), 178-180.

25. Goldberg , W., Burland, M., Venkatesan, V., Deng , M., & Fournier , W. (2003). Complete genomic sequence and comparative genomics of Shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457T. Infect Immun, 71(5), 2775-2786.

26. Hadian, G. H. ( 2003). The Concept of terrorism and the subject of Islamic law in relation to it. Mesbah, 2 (45), 27-48.

27. Hajizadeh, Y. (2011). Tricks in the military practice of Imam Ali. History of Islamic Culture and Civilization, 1(5), 39-52.

28. Hank, D. (2001). Food and materials, sabotage places and agents and toxins usable in bioterrorism. CDC Archives, 115(8), 1012-1018.

29. Haramali, M. I. (no date). Wasael Al-Shi'a Ela Tahsil Masael Al-Shariah. Beirut: Dar Ehya Al-Torath Al-Arabi.

30. Hatam, H. (2010). Review of bioterrorism and biological defense. International Police Studies, 5(1), 145-171.

31. Hatami, H. (2003). Syndromic care in organizing bioterrorist attacks, in: Epidemiology and bioterrorism-related disease control (2nd ed.). Seda Publication of Center for Disease Management.

32. Hatami, H. (2008). Biological defense and its importance in public health, in the book: Comprehensive public health (Third ed.). Arjmand Publications. Retrieved from http://www.elib.hbi.ir/persian/PUBLIC_HEALTH_EBOOK/09_15.pdf

33. Hatami, H. (2010). Ancestry medical research bases. Makhzan Al-Advieh.

34. Helli. (no date). Rules of commandments. Qom: Manshourat Al-Razi.

35. Helli, A. (1993). Rules of commandments. Qom: Al-Nashr Al-Islam Institute.

36. Helli, H. (1272 AH). Tazkerat Al-Fughaha. Tehran.

37. Helli, M., & Najm Al-Din, J. (1988). Shira'e Al-Islami Fi Asael Al-Hilal va Al-Haram. Qom: Islamic Institute.

38. Horr Ameli, M. (1993). Wasael Al-Shi'a Ela Tahsil Masael Al-Shariah. Qom: Aal-Bait Al-Ehya Altarat.

39. Ibn Idris, A. (1990). Al-Sarayar. Qom: Institute of Al-Nashr Al-Islami.

40. Ibn Manzour, M. (1994). Lassan Al-Arab. Beirut: Darsadar.

41. Imam Khomeini , S. (2006). Tahrir Al-Vasileh. Tehran: Institute for Preparation and Publication of Imam Khomeini's Works.

42. Imam Khomeini , S. (1970). Tahrir Al-Vasileh. Najaf: Matbaol Al-Adab.

43. Imam Khomeini , S. (2002). Al-Makaseb A-lMahrama. Qom: Ismailids.

44. Isfahani, B. F. (1971). Kashf Al-Lattam.

45. Kellini, M., & Kellini, M. (2010). Forou Al -Kafi. Qom: Dar Al-Azvae.

46. Luciana , B., Hynes, N. (2010). Bioterrorism: An overview, In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (17th ed.). Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier.

47. Malabi M. (2002). Construction, characterization, and animal testing of WRSd1, a Shigella Dysenteriae 1 Vaccine. Infectious and Immunity, 70(6), 2950-2958.

48. Marashi. (2002). Terrorism and legitimate defense in Islam and international law, in the conference on terrorism and legitimate defense from the point of view of Islam and international law. Tehran: Center for Judicial Studies and Development.

49. Maverdi Basri, A. (1986). Soltanieh rulings. Al-Alam Al-Islami School.

50. Meselson , M. (1994). The Sverdlovsk antherax outbreak of 1997. Science, 266(188), 1202-1208.

51. Najafi, M. H. (1980). Javaher Al-Kalam (6th ed.). Tehran: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Islamieh.

52. Najafi, M. H. (1984). Javaher Al-Kalam. Dar Al-Kotob Al-Islam.

53. Najafi, M. H. (1986). Javaher Al-Kalam (2nd  ed.). Tehran: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Islam.

54. Najafi, M. H. (n.d.). Javaher Al-Kalam. Beirut: Dar Ehya Al-Torath al-Arabi.

55. Robertson , A., & Robertson, L. (1995). From asps to allegations: biological warfare in history. Mil. Med, 160(8), 369-373.

56. Sarikhani, A., & Doroodi, A. (2011). Jurisprudential ssurvey of proportionality condition of defense and invasion in legitimate defense. Islamic Law(30), 29-58.

57. Sedghi, A. a.-F. ( 2003). Book introduction: Defense against biological warfare and bioterrorism. Basij Strategic Studies(18 and 19), 211-216.

58. Shah Hosseini, M. H. (2001). Bioterrorism: The ghost of biological wars. Military Medicine, 4(3), 201-209.

59. Soltani, A. A. (1999). Review of the jurisprudential principle of no-domination rule. Islamic Studies 1(44), 129-144.

60. Tabatabaei, S. M. (1997). Interpretation of Al-Mizan. Qom: Islamic Publishing House of Teachers Society.

61. Tavakoli, H. (2003). Food vulnerability against biological threats. 2nd National Conferences of Modern Warfare Defense. Tehran: Imam Hossein University.

62. Tavakoli, H., Sarrafpour, R., & Samadi, M. (2005). Food and bioterrorism. Military Medicine, 1(7), 75-82.

63. Thani, S. (1999). Sharh Lamheh (8th ed.). Beirut: Darol Oloum Publication.

64. Thomas V. , I., Tara O’Toole, & Donald A. , H. (2000). Preventing the use of biological weapons. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 30(6), 908-914.

65. Tusi, A. J. (1933). Al-Mabsut Fi Fiqh Al-Ammamiah.Tehran: Al-Maktabat Al-Mortazavieh.

66. Tousi, M. i. (1995). Tahzib Al-Ahkam. Tehran: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Islamieh.

67. Vaezi, K. (2000). Legitimate defense in Iranian penal code. Qom: Center for Publications of Islamic Propaganda Office of Qom Seminary Theology School.

68. Zahili, W. (1385 AH). Asarol Harb fi Fiqh Al-Islam. Beirut: Dar Al-Fikr.

69. Ziaie Bigdeli, M. R. (2010). Islam and international law. Tehran: Ganj Danesh Library.

70. Zilinskas , R. (1990). Terrorism and biological weapons: Inevitable alliance? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 1(34), 44-72.