Legal Bases of Compensation by the Government in Judge's Error

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Jurisprudence & Principles of Islamic Law

2 Department of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

3 Department of Jurisprudence & Criminal Law, Ayatollah Haeri University, Meybod, Iran

4 Department of Jurisprudence & Criminal Law, Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran



Imamieh jurisprudents disagree about judge's responsibility, the liability of public treasury, lack of responsibility, when the judge's decision is void. Since the source of judge’s error can be different. The sentencing of responsibility or lack thereof is not the same in all cases. If the source of error is lewdness of witnesses so that after the testimony and issuing the sentence, the judge becomes aware of the fact that witnesses had been lawed. Then four theories are presented. The preferred theory is the responsibility of public treasury based on the principle of respect for Muslim blood. Also, if the source of the error is judge’s default on the subject matter or adaptation of the ruling on it, the public treasury will be the guarantor, unlike the case in which the judge neglects in a judgment and thus he will be the guarantor. Dominant jurists of Imamieh have also extended the sentencing of warranty to non-convicts. If the executioner's error in executing a judge's sentence is due to judge’s error, it will be like judge’s error. In financial cases, if an error is made while the object remains as the same, it will be returned to the original owner, and when it is perished, the person who has caused damage (the flashing) is liable, if the object has not yet reached the judge before delivery of the convicted. Otherwise, both of them become responsible because of pursuit of capture.


  1. Allameh Helli, H. (1992). Mokhtalaf Al-Shia fi Ahkam Al-Sharia. Qom: Islamic Publication Institute.
  2. Allameh Majlesi, M. (1986). Malazo Al-Akhyar fi fahm Tahzib Al-Akhbar. Qom: Marashi Library Publication.
  3. Ameli, S. (no date). Meftah Al-Karama fi Sharh Qavaede Al-Alama. Beirut: Dar Ehya Torath Arabi.
  4. Amidi, S. (1995). Kanzo Al-Favaed fi Hale Moshkelat Al-Qavaed. Qom: Islamic Publication Institute.
  5. Ansari, M. (1994).  Ketab Al-Ghazava Al-ShahAdt. Qom: World Congress of Sheikh Ansari.
  6. Ardabili, A. (1983). Majmaol Faeda va Al-Borhan fi Sharh Ershad Al-Azhan. Qom: Islamic Publication Office.
  7. Bojnourdi, S. (1998).  Al- Ghavaed Al-Feghheya.  Qom: Al-Hadi Publication.
  8. Fakhr Al-Mohagheghin, M. (1967). Ezaho Al-Favaed fi Sharh Moshkelat Al-Ghavaed. Qom: Esmaeilian Pubication.
  9. Golpayegani, S. (1992). Ketabo Al-Shahadat. Qom:  Golpayegani Publication.
  10. Hur Ameli, M. (1988). Vasael Al-Shiah. Qom: Aal Bayt Institute.
  11. Husseini Maraghi, S. (1996). Al-Anavin Al-Fiqhya. Qom:  Islamic Publication Institute.
  12. Ibn Baboye, M. (1992). Man La Yahzoro Al-faqih. Qom: Islamic Publication Institute.
  13. Ibn Davood Helli, H. (1963). Rejal. Tehran:Tehran University Publication.
  14. Ibn Idris Helli, M. (1989). Al-Saraer Al-Havi Le Tahrir Al-Fatava. Qom: Islamic Publication Institute.
  15. Ibn Manzour, M. (1993). Lesan Al-Arab. Beirut: Darol Fekr.
  16. Ibn Qodama, A. (no date). Al-Moghni.  Beirut: Darol Kotob Arabi.
  17. Ibn Qodama, A. (no date). Al-Sharh Al-Kabir. Beirut:  Darol Kotob Arabi.
  18. Imam Khomeini, R. (2001). Istefta'at. Qom: Islamic Publication Institute.
  19. Jouhari, E. (1989). Al-Sehah Tajo Al-Logha va Sehah Al-Arabiya. Beirut: Dar Al-Elm.
  20. Kashi, M. (1988). Rejal Al-Kashi. Mashhad: Mashhad University Publication Institute.  
  21. Koleini, M. (1986). Al-Kafi. Tehran: Dar Al- Kotob Al- Islamiya.
  22. Najafi, M. (1404). Javaher Al-Kalam fi Sharh Sharae Al-Islam. Beirut: Dar Ehya Torath Arabi.
  23. Rouhani, S. (1991). Fegh Al-Sadiq  Alayhe Al-Salam. Qom: Dar Al-Ketab.
  24. Sabzevari, M. (2002). Kefayat Al-Ahkam. Qom: Islamic Publication Institute.
  25. Shahid Avval, M. (no date). Al-Qavaedva Al-Favaed. Qom: Sheikh Mofid Bookshop.
  26. Shahid Avval. M, (1993). Qayato Al-Morad fi Sharhenokato Al-Ershad. Qom: Islamic Publication Institute.
  27. Shahid Avval. M. (1989). Al-Lomat Al-Dameshiat fi Fiqh Al-Imamia. Beirut: Dar Torath Al-Islami.
  28. Shahid Sani, Z. (1991). Al-Rozato Al-Baheya fi Sharh Al-Lomato Al-Dameshgheya. Qom: Islamic Publication Institute.
  29. Sheikh Tousi, M. (1967). Al-Mabsot fi Fiqh Al-Imamieh. Tehran: Al-Hadi Pulication.
  30. Sheikh Tousi, M. (1970). Al-Estebsar fi Makhtalaf Men Al-Akhbar. Tehran:  Dar Al-kotob Al-Islamiya.
  31. Sheikh Tousi, M. (1980). Al-Nehaya fi Mojarade Al-Feghhva Al-Fava. Beirut: Dar Al-Ketab Al-Arabi.
  32. Sheikh Tousi, M. (1987). Al-Khelaf. Qom:  Islamic Publication Institute.
  33. Sheikh Tousi, M. (no date). Al-Tebyan Fi Tafsir Al-Quran. Beirut: Dar Ehya Torath Arabi.
  34. Shoushtari, M. (1986). Al-Najat fi Sharhe Al-Lomat. Tehran: Shiekh Sadooq Bookshop.
  35. Sobhani, J.  (1993).  Kolliat fi Elm Al-Rejal. Qom: Islamic Publication Institute.
  36. Sobhani, J. (1993).  Nezamol Qazava Al-Shahadat fi Al-Shariat Al-Islamiah Al-Ghara. Qom: Imam Sadiq Institute.
  37. Tabatabaei, M. (1996). Al-Mizan Fi Tafsir Al-Quran. Qom: Islamic Publication Institute.
  38. Tabatabaei, M. (no date). Ketab Al-Manael. Qom: Aal Bayt Institute.
  39. Tabrizi, j. (no date). Ososo Al-Ghazava Al-Shahada Qom:  Ayatoallah Tabrizi Publication.
  40. Taheri, H. (1997). Civil law. Qom: Islamic Publication Institute.