The study of Legal and Judicial Necessity Effects in Non-Contractual Liability (A Comparative Study(

Document Type : Original Article

Author

Department of Law & Political Sciences, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran

10.22034/ijrj.2018.540068

Abstract

The substantiation of some titles is justifying and legitimating of harmful act and in other words, eliminating fault. One of these categories is necessity in non-contractual civil liability. Unlike contractual civil liability that referred to in Article 206 of Civil code, It has not been raised on the necessity in law expressly. Without any doubt, necessity removed the fault from the harmful act and action which is illegitimated in the normal position and is unlawful and makes it lawful and permissible. But whether committing damaging action in necessity mode, exempts from civil liability or not, there are two views. In the first view, necessity does not remove civil liability and must be compensated damage. In the second view, necessity removes civil liability because of prevention of harmfulness around yourself or others. This article accepts the First view. 

Keywords


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  27. Shahidi, M. (2001).Contracts and commitments (6th ed.). Tehran: Majd Publication.
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  31. Winfiel, P. (1950). The law of torts. London: Sweet & Maxwell.
  32. Yazdi,  M. (1999). Al-Mekasb. Qom: Lithography.
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  2. Anasari, M. (1989). Al-Makaseb ( 1st  ed). Beirut: Nour Institute.
  3. Ansari, M. (1997). Al-Makaseb (1st ed). Beirut: Al-Hadi Institute.
  4. Barrows, J. &. Mulgan, M. &. Mc. G. (1991). The law of torts (2nd ed).New Zealand: The Book Company Limited.
  5. Calamari, J. (1974). The law of contract (3rd ed). London.
  6. C.D.Baker.(1672). Tort. London: Sweet & Maxwell,
  7. Deakin,  S.F. (1994).Tort law (3rd ed). Oxford: Claredon  Press.
  8. Fleming, G.(1971).The law of torts ( 4th  Ed). Australia: The Law Book Company Limited.
  9. Imami, H. (2010).Civil rights (1st ed). Tehran: Islamiyah Publication.
  10. International  Encyclopedia Of  Comparative Law.(1973). Boston: The Hague.
  11. Ismail, M. (1996). Al-Qavaed Al-Fiqahi (1st  ed). Beirut: Dar Al-Manar.
  12. Jafari, L. (1978). Encyclopedia of civil and commercial law (1st ed.). Tehran: Ravad Foundation.
  13. Jafari, L. (2002).Terminology of law. Tehran: Library of Ganj Danesh.
  14. Jones, M. (1991).Textbook of torts (3rd ed.). London: Blackstone Press Limited.
  15. Justice, M. (1963). Civil rights (7th ed.).Tehran: Amir Kabir Publication.
  16. Katouzin, N. (1992).Preliminary civil rights course (2nd ed.).Tehran:Yalda Publishing.
  17. Katouzin, N. (1990).Civil liability (2nd  ed.). Tehran: Tehran University Press.
  18. Khomeini Mousavi, R. (1986). Tahrir Al-vasileh (2nd ed.). Qom: Islamic Literature Institute.
  19. Markesinis, B. (1994). Tort law (3rded). Oxford: Claredon  Press.
  20. Mohr. J.(1973). Torts in international encyclopedia of comparative law. London: Manshourat Publication.
  21. Parsapour, M. (2003).Emergency and its place in civil responsibility. Quarterly Journal, No. 40.
  22. Prosser, W. (1997). The law of torts (4th ed.). United States: West Publishing Company.
  23. Qibla Khoei,  Kh. (2001).The rules of jurisprudence (1st ed.). Tehran: Tehran Publication.
  24. Salmond,  H. (1981).The law of torts. London: Sweet & Maxwell.
  25. Scott, D. (1981). Level of English law (4thed). London: Buttherworths.
  26. Street, H. (1976).The law of torts (6th  ed.). London: Butterworths.
  27. Shahidi, M. (2001).Contracts and commitments (6th ed.). Tehran: Majd Publication.
  28. Tavassoli, M. (2003). Impact of emergency on civil responsibility. Journal of Law and Political Science, 25(1), 95-1112.
  29. Traité de droit civil. (1998). Viney, Geneviève,Jourdian,Patrice, Les conditions de la responsabilité( 2éd ). L.G.D.J, paris.
  30. Winfielld, J. (1975). The law of torts. London: Sweet and Maxwell Co.
  31. Winfiel, P. (1950). The law of torts. London: Sweet & Maxwell.
  32. Yazdi,  M. (1999). Al-Mekasb. Qom: Lithography.
  33. Carbonnier, J. (1998). Droit civil. Paris: Presuniversittaires de France.
  34. Flour,  J. (no date). Droit civil, Les obligation. Paris.
  35. Henri, L.(1977). de droit civil. Armanc Colin.