Duress to Murder and its Documentations in Imamieh Jurisprudence & law of Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 ssistant Professor of Qaemshahr Branch, Qaemshahr, Iran

2 Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran


Based on rules of Imamieh jurisprudence and Iranian criminal rights (including Article 151 of Islamic Penal Code ratified in 2013), one of the eliminating factors of criminal liability is duress. Duress includes “mental pressure imposed on a person through whom his free will and authority (consent) is waived at the time of committing that behavior”. The present paper discusses determining intentional murder judgment resulting from duress and its documentations in Iranian rights (Articles 375 to 380 of Islamic Penal Code ratified in 2013) and Imamieh jurisprudence. This study concluded that firstly, the failure in elimination of criminal liability from the person subject to reluctance in the status of duress to murder is based on the distinction without reference and principle of human being lives equality. Secondly, the basis of eliminating criminal liability from the person subject to reluctance to murder in the case of being minor or insane is the rule of stronger cause from the foreman. Thirdly, Imamieh jurists’ opinions concerning permission or prohibition of killing in terms of duress to murder are not the same; however, the most well-known idea of Imamieh Jurists and consequently, Islamic Penal Act (IPA) ratified in 2013 is principally based on prohibition of murder in the case of duress to killing. 


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