عنوان مقاله [English]
The present study examines vilāyat-i faqī (jurist’s guardianship) on a child without a specific guardian. Well-known jurists, assuming the absence of a father or paternal ancestor or the absence of a will by the father or paternal ancestor, consider the ruling jurist as the exclusive guardian of such a child. This view, in addition to having no strong reasons, faces several opposing arguments. This article first examines the inclusion of the reasons of vilāyat-i faqī in the two approaches of absolute vilāyat and vilāyat regarding the affairs of hisbi, and then concludes by providing reasons from verses, narrations and historical reports that the Holy Shāri’ did not have the opinion of the jurists but only demanded that the interests of the orphan child be observed, which is a customary stance. Finally, it is stated that the emphasis on the exclusive guardianship of the jurist and diminishing the role of the customary guardian like the mother and other relatives of the child is the product of and is a matter of the rationality which stands for past and old eras, perhaps emphasizing it in today's society is not only wrong, but also it will not have the appropriate efficiency that it had long ago.